Learn how to make any of the craft projects you see on the site or in our store!

Cutting Bottles with a Tile Saw

How to Cut Bottles with a Tile Saw

In a previous video I demonstrated how to cut bottles using the Kinkajou bottle cutter. The Kinkajou works well: it usually produces a nice straight cut that doesn’t require a lot of smoothing after the fact.  But I’ve stumbled across another way to cut bottles: you can cut bottles with a tile saw.


My sister gifted me a tile saw a few years ago when I was remodeling a bathroom.  It’s a cheap saw and there are many just like it on Amazon or at Harbor Freight. You can get away with one of the $70-80 models.  In addition, don’t forget to have hand and eye protection, as well as a dust mask or other breathing protection. The saw produces a lot of glass dust, and it’s probably a bad idea to suck it into your lungs!

You also need bottles. The cool thing about using a tile saw is that you’re not limited to round bottles as you are with most speciality bottle cutting tools.

There’s very little to it and no “secret techniques” to show you. If you’re making a straight cut perpendicular to the bottle you can use the saw’s fence as a guide. But I like using the tile saw because you can make angled cuts across the neck of the bottle, as well as other non-perpendicular cuts that you can’t produce with the Kinkajou.

Take your time. If you try to force the bottle through the blade it’s a recipe for disaster. Take it slow. Gently push the bottle into the blade until it fully penetrates the glass. Then rotate the bottle slowly into the blade, until there’s not much material left. Then remove the bottle and plunge into the remaining material until it’s fully separated. In my experience this is the best way to prevent the two side from splitting unevenly and leaving a jagged edge.

Is a tile saw a better or worse method than using a Kinkajou ? Well it depends. The Kinkajou makes a more reliable and smoother cut. But it’s not perfect. Sometimes your bottle will still separate with a jagged edge. In addition, the Kinkajou isn’t designed to cut through the neck, and can only make cuts perpendicular to the length of the bottle. The Kinkajou also requires a time-intensive process of scoring the bottle, and then separating it using hot and cold water.

Cutting bottles with a tile saw is much faster. You can completely cut a bottle in about a minute. You have more flexibility in the cuts you can make. The downside is that your bottles are more likely to break unevenly (so make sure you have extras), and you’ll spend more time sanding and polishing the finished product.

How to Make a Wine Bottle Pendant Light

Wine bottle pendant lights are one of those Pinterest projects that every wife seems to love and every husband insists he can make, but doesn’t. Trust me, I know! I heard that conversation play out a dozen times when I tried to sell some at a local event. But don’t worry–I’m here to help. This post will teach you how to make your own wine bottle pendant light. If you don’t have the time or inclination to make ir yourself, that’s no problem! We sell wine bottle pendant lights in our store as well.



  • Wine bottle (one per light)
  • Keyless Lamp Socket (one per light)
  • Rayon Retro Wire (a few feet per light)
  • 0000 Steel Wool for removing adhesive
  • Goo Gone for removing adhesive
  • 50/50 Vinegar water for bottle cleaning
  • Newspaper for bottle cleaning
  • Pot for boiling water
  • Sink or tub for soaking bottles

How to Make a Wine Bottle Pendant Light

Follow along to learn how to make your own wine bottle pendant light. If you find the process to daunting or the materials too expensive, you can always buy a wine bottle pendant light from our store.

Step 1: Get Wine Bottles

Before you can start making wine bottle pendant lights, you need to round up some wine bottles. You’ll want standard (750ml) or magnum (1.5L) bottles. Anything smaller won’t accept a light bulb. Anything larger is heavy, looks silly, and is difficult to cut.

Get Extra Bottles

You’ll want to have extra bottles available. particularly the first time you try this project. When you get to the glass cutting step you’ll find that, no matter how hard you try to score a perfect line, every so often the glass will break crooked, so having some backups available is important.

Where to Get Wine Bottles

Where can you find wine bottles? Try your recycling bin. Let’s face it: if you’re cool with having wine bottles hanging from your ceilings, there’s a good chance you like to imbibe.

If you don’t have any just ask around: we’ve all got friends who’ve discovered the wine loophole (it’s perfectly acceptable to get hammered at home alone. So long as it’s wine. Anything else and you’re a sad, pathetic drunk!) A quick Facebook message usually yields more bottles than you need.

If all else fails, go dumpster diving. Find out when your township’s recycling center is open, dawn some gloves and boots, and hop in.

Selecting a Bottle Color

What color bottles do you want? It’s up to you. I’ve found that clear glass just looks dull and brown glass is too dark.  Green bottles look great as do blue when you can find them.

Step 2: Clean the Bottles

Bottles aren’t hard to clean if you have the right  materials, and prepare them ahead of time. I created an article and video previously about how to clean wine bottles previously. The only update to that information I have is to get a bottle of Goo Gone to clean up the adhesive backing left from the stickers.

Step 3: Cut the Bottles

There several ways to cut glass bottles and they all suck to varying degrees. If bottle cutting is something you plan on doing more than once, I recommend you pick up a Kinkajou Bottle Cutter from Bottle Cutting, Inc. It eliminates much of the trial and error from the process, and they sell a bundle that has all the stuff you need to cut and smooth bottle glass. If you decide to save money and cut your bottles a different way that’s fine. Catch up with me in step 4.

I created a separate article and video on Cutting Bottles with the Kinkajou bottle cutter. Check that out here.

 Step 4: Smooth the Glass

After you cut the glass it will leave incredibly sharp edges that risk cutting your hands when you handle the bottle. The company that sells the Kinkajou also sells a kit including the Kinkajou, several flexible diamond sanding pads, and a bunch of wet/dry sandpaper. This is what I use to smooth the glass, but it does cost some money. Several grits of wet-dry sandpaper from 180 up through 220 will work just as well. Make sure you sand both the inner and outer lip of the bottle.

Step 5: The Final Cleaning

Now that the edges have been sanded smooth you’ll notice glass dust all over the bottle. This is why we didn’t give the bottle a “final cleaning” any earler. I clean glass bottles the same way I clean windows: using newspaper and warm vinegar water.

Step 6: Install the Electrical Components

To turn your bottle into a pendant lamp you’ll need two things: a keyless lamp socket (a lamp socket without an on/off switch), and a length of lamp wire that will position the lamp where you want it verticall y below the ceiling.

I like to use Rayon Antique Wire for my bottle lamps: it gives them a retro feel that looks great with the bottle. Modern Rayon Antique Wire looks like the old nylon-covered wire you can run into in old house remodels with knob-and-tube wiring, but don’t worry: under the Rayon covering it’s safe, modern, insulated copper wire.

You can order keyless lamp socket online or pick one up at your local hardware store. I use brass lamp sockets but they come in a variety of finishes. Just make sure you buy the type that fully encloses the wiring.

Cutting the Wire

Measure and cut the wire using a pair of wire cutters. Measure an extra foot to accommodate the extra wire you’ll need to wire into the electrical circuit at the ceiling and on the other end to run down the neck of the bottle and wire into the lamp socket.  I like my lamps to hang about 12” from the ceiling, so I measure 24” of wire.

Untwist about an inch of wire on either end, and strip about ¾” of copper wire using a wire cutter. The Rayon Retro Wire that I use use 18 gauge. Make sure you use the appropriate gauge when stripping your own wire.  Once stripped, choose an end of the wire to be the lamp end. You’ll take each bunch of stranded copper and twist the bunch together and then bend it into a hook to go around the terminals on the lamp socket.

Attach the wire to the Lamp Socket

Attach the copper wire to the terminals. The neutral wire (usually the one with white insulation, but not always) attaches to the silver terminal. The hot wire (usually the one with black insulation, but not always) attaches to the brass terminal. The hook should go around the terminal in the direction that pulls the wire towards the terminal when you tighten it. If that’s not the case, loosen the terminal and reverse the direction of the wire.  Ensure that both terminals are hand-tightened with a screw driver.

Knot the Wire

Next we need to tie a knot in the wire just above the lamp socket. This knot needs to be tight to the socket, and not so big that you can’t hide it beneath the lamp socket’s cap.  This knot basically prevents the wires from being pulled away from their terminals by gravity.

Finally, pass the other end of the lamp wire through the lamp socket’s cap and push the cap tight onto the lamp socket.

Install the Lamp Hardware in the Bottle

Installing your assembled lamp socket is easy. Just pass the loose end of the wire through the bottom of the bottle and up through the neck. Pull the wire out the other side and pull it tight so the lamp socket pulls tight against the inside of the bottle’s neck.

Step 7: Installation

Install your wine bottle pendant light light like any other pendant light.  Your mileage may vary! A pendant light requires a canopy to cover the overhead lighting box. If you don’t already have one you can pick one up online or at your local hardware store.

First, ensure that the lighting circuit doesn’t have power by switching off it’s breaker at the breaker box. Now you can safely install the light.

If you already have a canopy on the ceiling go ahead and remove it. Now pass the loose end of your pendant light through the hole in the center of the canopy. Make another knot in the wire above the canopy, which will prevent gravity from pulling the wire out of the connections you’re about to make.

Install the light into the circuit by connecting the neutral (usually white) wires and hot (usually black) wires with appropriately-sized wire nuts. If your wire has a ground wire, attach that too.

Re-attach the canopy to the wiring box and flip the breaker back to an on position.

How to Cut Bottles With the Kinkajou Bottle Cutter Masthead

How to Cut Bottles with the Kinkajou Bottle Cutter

[one_full last=”yes” spacing=”yes” center_content=”no” hide_on_mobile=”no” background_color=”” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” background_position=”left top” hover_type=”none” link=”” border_position=”all” border_size=”0px” border_color=”” border_style=”” padding=”” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=”” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”” animation_speed=”0.1″ animation_offset=”” class=”” id=””][fusion_text]This is my second article in a series on making crafts with glass bottles. If you haven’t read it already, check out my first article about cleaning and removing the labels from wine bottles. Once you’ve got a clean bottle to work with, you’re ready for the Kinkajou bottle cutter.

Why Cut Bottles?

There are tons of projects you can make out of bottles.  You can make wine bottle lamps, drinking cups, planters, automatic plant feeders, decorations… you get the idea. Some people call it “upcycling.”  I call it “making slightly better shit out of other shit.” Language aside: if you enjoy making useful things from landfill fodder, then wine bottles will provide you with endless entertainment and free material.

But all of the projects I mentioned require you to cut wine bottles. So how do you make a cut around a circular piece of glass? A quick search turns up about 50 different methods of bottle cutting. I can promise you that I’ve most of them numerous times, and that none of the methods you’ll find are anywhere near as easy or as safe as the one successful take the author posted to YouTube.

Enter the Kinkajou Bottle Cutter.

What is the Kinkajou Bottle Cutter?

The Kinkajou Bottle Cutter is a special-use tool that does one thing very well: it cuts round bottles. It essentially works the same way as a pipe cutter: the tool clamps around the bottle and rotates around it. In the case of the Kinkajou, it actually doesn’t cut the bottle completely: it scores the glass which is then separated by applying extreme temperatures to the score line.

Bottle cutting is hard and error-prone. Or at least it was until the Kinkajou Bottle Cutter came along. I’m going to teach you how to use the Kinkajou, along with a couple of secrets I discovered along the way to get a perfect cut, every time.

How to Cut Bottles with the Kinkajou Bottle Cutter

Cutting bottles with the Kinkajou is pretty simple, but you’ll need a few things to get started.


  • Wine Bottles, Beer Bottles, etc.
  • The Kinkajou itself
  • Rubber Bands (included with the Kinkajou)
  • Abrasives for Smoothing the Cut (diamond files that come in the Kinkajou kit, or wet/dry sandpaper)
  • Eye Protection
  • Gloves
  • A pot for boiling water
  • A coffee pot or other container to pour boiling water
  • Spacer blocks (blocks of equally sized scrap wood)

Clean the Bottles

Your bottles need to be free of debris inside and out before you start cutting.  Debris, such as bottle labels or dried up wine can make cuts go off center, or make the glass break jagged instead of straight along the scored line. For a quick and easy way to make your bottles spotless and ready for cutting, check out my previous post about how to clean wine bottles.

Clean your wine bottles well inside-and-out before you try to cut them. Both grime and labels can mess up the cut later.

Clean your wine bottles well inside-and-out before you try to cut them with the kinkajou bottle cutter. Both grime and labels can mess up the cut later.

Start Boiling Water

Towards the end of the instructions, you’ll need boiling water. Start heating the water now so it’s ready when  you need it.

Reset the Kinkajou

The Kinkajou Bottle Cutter looks more complicated than it is. Start by “resetting” the Kinkajou. The device has a threaded rod on each side. Spin the nuts all the way to the bottom of the threaded rods so the Kinkajou is open as far as it can open. Then make sure the cams on top of the threaded rods are in the open position. Make sure the cam that lowers the cutting wheel is raised as well.

Reset the Kinkajou by twisting the nuts on the two threaded rods to the ends, then opening all three cam clamps.

Reset the Kinkajou by twisting the nuts on the two threaded rods to the ends, then opening all three cam clamps.

Setup the Spacer Blocks

Spacer blocks are the special sauce that I used to get a perfect cut every time I used my Kinkajou.  First decide where you want to cut the bottle.  Then acquire a couple of scrap pieces of wood that you can use to raise the Kinkajou to that height. The important part is that you need the same height on either side of the bottle, so plywood is an excellent material for making your spacers, because it’s very uniform thickness.

Setup your spacers on either side of the bottle.  The projects I’ve made recently required cutting off the very bottom of the bottle, so a 3/4″ plywood spacer on either side worked perfectly.  Now lower the Kinkajou around the bottle and rest it on the spacers.

Use spacers made of plywood or dimensional lumber to ensure that your Kinkajou bottle cutter makes a perfectly horizontal cut.

Use spacers made of plywood or dimensional lumber to ensure that your Kinkajou bottle cutter makes a perfectly horizontal cut.

Tighten the Kinkajou Bottle Cutter

Tighten the nuts on the two threaded rods evenly. That is, give them roughly the same number of spins so that the tool is equally tight on either side. Tightening one side more than the other can result in  an uneven cut and jagged break. Tighten the nuts until you can’t easily pull the bottle out of the Kinkajou, but it still spins within the tool easily. Now, rotate the cams at the top of the threaded rods to fully engage the Kinkajou. At this point you should not be able to pull the bottle out, but it should still turn easily. If not, adjust the nuts until the tool has a satisfactory grip.

Finally, making sure that the tool is firmly against the spacer blocks, turn the cam to engage the cutter.

Score the Bottle

At this point I do things a little bit differently than the Kinkajou’s official instructions. Use one hand to hold the Kinkajou firmly down against the spacer blocks. Use your other hand to turn the bottle inside the tool. You’ll have to listen to the tool to know when you’re finished. When the cutter has made a full rotation you’ll hear a “click” when it returns to the beginning of the cut.  Stop rotating with you hear this.

Making a second score around the bottle is unnecessary, can cause a bad break, and puts unnecessary wear-and-tear on the blade.

Score the bottle by holding the Kinkajou bottle cutter tight against the spiders and rotating the bottle with in.

Score the bottle by holding the Kinkajou bottle cutter tight against the spiders and rotating the bottle with in.

Apply Hot and Cold Water to the Score Mark

To separate the glass, we’ll apply successive treatments of boiling and cold water.

First, wrap the two rubber bands that come with the Kinkajou around the bottle at levels just above and just below the cut. The rubber bands help limit the effects of the extreme temperatures we’re about to apply.

Transfer the boiling water to a coffee pot or other receptable that can easily pour it without burning you.  Hold your bottle over the sink and drizzle the boiling water on the score line as you slowing rotate the bottle.  After you’ve heated the bottle for about 20 seconds, stop pouring, and run cold water from the link over the score line. The score line should become visibly lighter, which is an indication that it’s close to breaking.

If it doesn’t break on the first round, that’s OK! Sometimes it takes two, three, or even four applications of hot and cold water. But eventually your glass will break.

Separate the two sides of the cut using alternating hot and cold water. This step can take time, but with patience you'll persevere!

Separate the two sides of the cut using alternating hot and cold water. This step can take time, but with patience you’ll persevere!

Sanding the Glass

After the two sides separate, you’ll need to sand the glass down so it’s safe to handle. I shelled out the extra cash for the Kinkajou kit, which comes with two diamond files in addition to several grits of wet/dry sandpaper. The diamond files make quick work of knocking down the sharp edges.

Whether you use the wet/dry sandpaper, diamond files, or both, don’t rush through the step. Make sure you round over both the inside and outside edges, and test them yourself to make sure you’re not passing on a dangerous edge to someone else!

Some Parting Words of Advice

I’ve got a lot of bottles and I’ve learned a lot along the way. And I’m going to repeat myself so you can avoid the frustration that might just make you give up on bottle cutting completely.

  • Using clean bottles is a must. Clean the bottles inside and out before you cut them. Make sure the labels and adhesive are off, or at least nowhere year where you plan to cut the bottle.
  • Use spacer blocks. The spacer blocks essentially force the tool to make the entire cut in the same horizontal plane. If you don’t use them, the tool can swerve during the cut. At best you’ll have more sanding to do later, and at worst so jagged you can’t sand it flat.
  • Batch out your work. That is, plan ahead and do one thing at a time, so you’re not wasting time moving around materials and setting up tools. Setting up and adjusting the Kinkajou is the most time-consuming step, so cutting all like-sized bottles at once will save you tons of time in the long-run.


Learn how to clean wine bottles and remove the labels the easy way!

How to Clean Wine Bottles


I’ve recently started making some projects out of wine bottles. Don’t worry: the bottle craft tutorials are coming soon! But in the meantime I’ll be approaching bottle-craft in bite-sized chunks by going over some of the tools and techniques you’ll use in every project. Every project starts with clean bottles, which can be easier said than done.  So in this article I’m going to explain how to clean wine bottles.  If there’s a better way, please let me know and I’ll be happy to update the content (and give you credit).

How to Clean Wine Bottles

Cleaning the inside of a wine bottle is pretty obvious: use a bottle brush and hot, soapy water. But cleaning the outside of the bottle can be a real chore.  I have a pretty good method that I’d like to share that is quick, easy, and only takes a few materials and tools you probably already have on-hand.

Tools and Materials

Step 1: Pre-Soak the Wine Bottles

Start soaking your wine bottles in water an hour or so before you’re ready to clean them. You can use a sink, a tub, or even a five-gallon bucket. The important part is that both the front and back labels are fully submerged, so let the bottles fill with water so they submerge.

Step 2: Remove the Label By Peeling or Scraping

Plastic labels will peel off pretty easily. Lift a corner using your fingernail, or a putty knife or chisel. Gentle pull back the label until it’s free from the bottle.

Paper labels won’t come off in one piece after soaking, but they will scrape off easily.  Using a putty knife or an old chisel scrape away the label and as much of the adhesive as possible.  Don’t forget to clean your tools when you’re done to avoid rust.

Step 3: Remove Adhesive with Hot Vinegar Water and Steel Wool

Removing sticker adhesive is usually the hardest part of cleaning a wine bottle, but it’s actually easy if you have the right materials on-hand.  Mix equal parts white vinegar and hot water in a spray bottle, and apply the mixture to your wine bottle. The cleaner will loosen the adhesive, which you can then easily remove by scrubbing the bottle with super fine steel wool. Repeat until you don’t see any traces of the adhesive.

Step 4: Final Cleaning

Spray the bottle one more time with the hot vinegar water. Then wipe the bottle down with recycled newspaper for a streak-free finish.

A secret compartment book I made in about 10 minutes using a custom tool.

How to Make a Secret Compartment Book

I’m definitely not the first maker to do a tutorial on how to make a secret compartment book. But I do think my way adds something a little bit special to the mix: specifically, speed.  Most tutorials suggest cutting out the compartment with an X-acto knife. It’s sharp and it’s accurate, but it’s also slow. I’ll show you how to make a secret compartment book using an oscillating multi-tool.

What You’ll Need

  • A book that’s big enough to store whatever you want to put in it, with a few pages leftover in the front and back.  Note: hardcovers work best!
  • An oscillating multi-tool. Brand is pointless.
  • A rigid scraper blade or, better yet, the custom blade I make in this video.
  • An X-acto Knife for fine-tuning the cut.
  • Glue.  I used thinned wood glue and it worked well. You can also try a special book-binding glue.
  • Clamps
  • Wax paper, for preventing the glue from binding the front and back of the book.
  • Wood scrap, metal scrap, or some other thin object you can slide between the pages to prevent your tool from cutting too far.  Don’t use anything more than 1/4″ thick.
  • Wood scraps slightly larger than the book. You’ll use them as cauls to clamp around the book so it dries in the proper shape.
  • Optional. A wooden block cut to the width and length of the compartment. You can use this as a template.

How to Make a Secret Compartment Book

Making the book should only take 10-15 minutes using my method, but it does has several distinct steps.

1. Select a Book

To make a secret compartment book you first need to find a book.  First of all: I don’t suggest cutting up books that are still useful, or enjoyable by someone, somewhere.  But many books (especially encyclopedias) do eventually run out of useful life.

Choose a book that’s a) no longer useful or b) has a special meaning in general, to you, or to the person that will receive it. The only hard-and-fast rule is that it must be big enough to make a useful secret compartment. Dime bags are small, but you never know what else they might to shove in there!

2. Find your Start and Stopping Points

Once you’ve selected a book you need to decide where you want your secret compartment to start and stop. You can get a little bit clever with this step.  You might choose a page with your favorite passage, or with a code-word like “secret” or “this book is totally not where I store the 8mm film of me beating up that hobo without mercy.”  The only requirement is that you leave something at the beginning of the book to cover the compartment, and you leave something at the back of the book to provide a backing.

In the book featured in this video I left 20 pages at the front and back.  Hardcover books make better secret compartments.  You can hollow out the entire book and just leave the solid covers intact.

3. Setup the Cut

Open the book to the page where you want the compartment to stop and insert the wooden scrap you’re using to prevent your tool from cutting too far. Make sure it’s pushed in far enough that it covers the entire area of the page where the cut will be made.

Next, Open the book to the page where you want the cut to start, and fold the beginning of the book as far as you can without damaging it so that it’s safely out of the way.

Clamp the book down to your work surface.  Check that the edge of the pages are still as close to straight as possible.  If your pages are arched back your compartment will be too, and your book may not close right after glue-up.

Now you can setup your cut. Either by “eye-balling it” or by using the optional template block, use the X-acto knife to cut a guide line into the top of the book.  If you do decide to make the cut without the aid of a block, just remember that the tools blade is wide and straight, so cutting a compartment with graceful curves using this method is not really an option.

Sever the first few pages with the X-acto knife.  This should provide a good visual distinction that will let you guide the multi-tool by eye so you don’t need to keep the guide block on the pages and in the way.

4. Cut the Compartment

Plug in your multi-tool and begin the cut.  Keep your blade as close to vertical as you can, and don’t take it too fast.  Using the custom blade the tool will sink straight through the pages. This is excellent for the length of the 4 sides but mind the corners.  You want to take it slow there and try not to cut outside of your guide lines.

When you reach the bottom of the cut you’ll know it. You’ll feel the tool no longer sinking through material, and when you feel that it’s time to move the tool.  Continue as such around the entire compartment.

Don’t feel like you need to completely remove every single page with the multi-tool. Remember, you still have the X-acto knife for precision, so use it to cut the corners without the risk of your multi-tool blowing through the guide lines.

5. Glue-up

Once you’re compartment is cut and you’ve cleaned it up as much as you desire with the knife, it’s time to glue up your book.  Tear off a sheet of wax paper and put it between the pages where your compartment begins. This will prevent the front and back of the book from sticking together and give the book a “hinge” action that opens it up to the compartment.

Mix up your glue.  If you chose to use wood or standard white glue, you’ll need to thin it down with water.  Make about a 3:1 mix of glue and water, and stir it until the texture is consistent.  Use a small paint brush to spread the glue around the edges of the book.  Be generous with the glue application, but try not to let it pool on the wax paper or it will cause it to stick to the book.  Apply to the edges of the top of the book as well as the bottom where the compartment is located. Before moving on, wipe away any excess glue on the covers of the book with a damp cloth.

Once the glue is applied it’s time to clamp it.  You’ll make a sandwich the materials in the following order: wooden caul, wax paper sheet, book, wax paper sheet, wooden caul.  Then clamp the book at the outer edges and allow it to dry for several hours.  If you used thinned-down glue, I’d recommend waiting overnight.

6. Touch-up

After the glue is finished drying, remove the clamps and gently peel away the wax paper. If the wax paper got stuck to the book, use your X-acto knife to delicately separate them from each other.  Gently open up your book.  If the front and back are stuck together at any point, once again use your X-acto knife to resolve the problem.

7. You Put Your Weed In It! (Or You Know, Whatever)

Congratulations! You made a secret compartment book!  Now stuff it with your filthy secrets and vices.  Don’t worry.  I won’t tell.